The Significance of English-Arabic Translation
This text is dedicated to the English Arabic translation; it should lay the sunshine on the definition of translation, the significance of English Arabic translation, the problem idioms impose to translators, the qualities of translator and the need for translation normally.
Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed’s phrases is: “the motion or technique of delivering from one language into one other. It’s the expression or rendering of sense of phrases, sentences, and passages and so forth from one language into one other.” Ulm-ul-Qur’an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, I.A.S.
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation because the rendering of a textual content into one other language.
Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8).defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as precisely as doable, the which means of the unique message in a approach that’s pure within the language into which the interpretation is being made.
Translation is far more than the interpretation of the which means of a textual content in a single language and the manufacturing of a brand new, equal textual content in one other language , or the substitution of the phrases of 1 language with the phrases of one other language, or the rendering of which means of a textual content or in any way in a single language into one other, it’s the bridge of appreciation and understanding amongst folks of various cultural teams , it’s the technique of communication amongst totally different teams of individuals, the technique of cultural change, the technique of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the technique of forming ties and friendships amongst totally different teams of individuals, and the technique of understanding and peace.
Human beings are in any case not dwelling alone and, each human being has the necessity and need to find out about each other, man tries to study what different individuals are doing, how they’re dwelling, and the way they’ve lived. We want to know, aside from our totally different ethnicity, colour, language, and tradition, whether or not we share the identical understanding of affection, ardour, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and plenty of different respects of human nature. So so long as the will to exists, translation would be the solely bridge throughout which our goals are reached and our need realized.
Within the common sense, the aim of translation is to construct bridges amongst totally different teams of individuals, however the aim of translation within the theoretical sense is to determine a relationship of equivalence between the supply and the goal language; it ought to be sure that each texts talk the identical message.
There was debate as as to if translation is an artwork, a science, or a Ability. I believe Translation is a mixture of all of them. It’s a science within the sense that it wants full information of the construction, grammar, semantics, and syntax and normally the make-up of the 2 languages involved. It’s an artwork because it requires inventive expertise to reconstruct the unique textual content within the type of a product that’s presentable to the reader who just isn’t presupposed to be aware of the unique. Additionally it is a ability, as a result of it requires consideration to element the which means and a radical understanding of the connection between syntax and semantics, coupled with in depth cultural background and the power to supply the interpretation of one thing that has no equal within the goal language.
Additionally being a human ability, it permits human beings to change concepts and ideas whatever the totally different languages they use. Man is endowed with the power to convey his emotions and expertise to others by means of language. For this technique of communication man acquired each spoken language and the written language, however when human beings unfold over the earth, their languages differed they usually wanted a method by means of which they’ll talk and work together with every others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one’s emotions and experiences into the opposite language was felt.
Typically we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic essential? Each Arabic and English are of the world nice languages, within the ebook ‘The Unfold of English, on web page 77 the author says: “the nice languages of immediately are languages of empire, previous and current. Solely two, Mandarin Chinese language and Russian, proceed as languages of administration inside single, ethno linguistically numerous states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them.”
Arabic language is among the nice world languages. there have been nice languages of nice empires that didn’t survive as an amazing language , like Turkish for example, once we examine Turkish with Arabic, we discover out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of many nice languages of the world until immediately, whereas the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority within the center east , Balkans, and totally different components of the world that was below the Ottoman rule for a thousand years ,however Turkish within the phrases of Fishman on web page 77 within the ebook ‘The Unfold of English” ‘flowed again to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire’. However these phrases will not be 100% correct as a result of Turkish is spoken throughout Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not solely in Anatolia which is simply part of Turkey. Additionally Turkish minorities within the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mom tongue. Furthermore the languages of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language household. But, no denying that Turkish language misplaced a whole lot of its significance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Returning to Arabic, it is among the six official languages adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a wealthy tradition and civilization relationship again many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic phrase for God), and it’s the language of the Holy Qura’an. It has produced nice figures equivalent to Averroes(Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian thinker; Ibn Khaldun, the primary social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the amount of literary, scholarly and scientific ebook manufacturing in Arabic and the extent of city literacy amongst readers of Arabic have been the very best the world had ever identified to that point. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal artwork kind for hundreds of years; the fantastic thing about their work might be revealed to anybody by means of the research of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, carefully associated to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Furthermore, Arabic is extensively spoken; complete audio system of Arabic exceed 350 million.
Based on the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was additionally a serious automobile of tradition, particularly in science, arithmetic and philosophy in the course of the center ages, that’s the reason many European languages have additionally borrowed quite a few phrases from it.
Pamela J.Farris says in her ebook Language arts on web page 99
“English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, sweet, lemon, orange, sugar, and journal.”
Not solely these phrases English borrowed from Arabic, however there are a whole bunch of different phrases borrowed from Arabic, there are some a whole bunch of the phrases English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, equivalent to storm which implies in Arabic 7HA’F , Spinach 3(‘F. , and sesame which implies in Arabic 3E3E.
So Arabic being one of many world nice languages makes translation from and into that language essential, particularly English Arabic translation.
Little question that English is a world language; these days it’s the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It’s listed because the official or co-official language of quite a few international locations .In addition to Arabic, it is among the six official languages within the United Nations
Consequently, the information of the English language is among the most essential instruments in reaching scientific and technological information; furthermore it’s a device of communication between international locations, totally different cultural teams, numerous corporations and organizations, communities and associates.
Translation is the device to utilize the brand new know-how and science. Science information coupled with a number of languages and cultures are more and more essential in an increasing world economic system and world welfare. It’s clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of recent concepts in science and know-how. USA has pioneered in all fields of know-how and science; accomplishments of Britain and US know-how are in English, so it is rather important to know English to utilize such know-how and science.
Additionally Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so essential to have entry to what’s going on in several components of the world, particularly Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the large powers of the world, and the Arab area is the theatre, the place very important occasions happen at current.
No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many essential information sources are in English, on web page 34 of the ebook The Unfold of English the author says: “English newspapers in non English mother-tongue international locations are one other indication of the world large standing of English”.
If one is aware of English, one can learn the information and factors of views of a number of writers across the globe, by doing so one can develop his information, and get a broader outlook on the environment, and to take a look at points with a broader perspective. For my part, figuring out any language is a world passport particularly English.
English can be the language of communication, with the unfold of web, English gave the impression to be the language of communication, a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of various races talk with every others by way of the web in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make associates amongst totally different cultural teams of individuals on totally different spots of our planet.
So being the language of science know-how and communication, within the age of the web, English unfold so extensively, there has by no means been a language so extensively unfold in so brief a time as English.
As talked about above, each Arabic and English are nice world languages, so translation between this pair of languages is essential and important due to the numerous causes talked about beforehand.
Translation has been and continues to be the technique of cultural and information change amongst folks all through historical past, and the technique of preserving cultural heritage.
Because the Islamic Arabic Empire unfold, the Arabic language and, certainly, tradition was enriched by contacts with different civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese language. Through the ninth and tenth centuries, an amazing translation motion, centered in Baghdad, was in pressure, by which many historical scientific and philosophical tracts have been transposed from historical languages, particularly Greek, into Arabic. Many have been enhanced by the brand new knowledge prompt by Arab thinkers; different texts have been merely preserved, solely to re-emerge in Europe in the course of the Renaissance.
Trendy European languages, equivalent to Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe an amazing debt to Arabic. The English language itself comprises many phrases borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and plenty of others. “
By the technique of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations advanced and flourished; the western civilization for example, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books have been translated from Arabic into totally different European languages, and it was the core for the present western civilization.
Within the ebook of “Muslim Contributions to World Civilization” On web page 118 we are going to discover that, “From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim students from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin within the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Clever. The translations have been then distributed to educational facilities in Europe, the place they turned the premise of the Renaissance, the revival of data in Europe.”
Stanwood Cobb says:” Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them by means of translation of Arabic works into Latin. On this science, as in different arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an goal and experimental methodology versus the purely speculative methodology of the Greeks.”
“The science of algebra owes a lot to gifted mathematicians of the
Islamic period. Its very identify proves the magnitude of this debt, for the identify itself is Arabic, al gebr, “a binding collectively .”
“Along with the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated.”
So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, the causes up to now and current are solely totally different. At the moment, it’s well-known that English Arabic translation is more and more changing into a subject of a lot concern and significance as of late. Oil, strategic location, historical past of the Islamic and totally different different civilizations that occurred within the Arabic area, and the present occasions within the Center East on the Arab facet and the western need to own the oil and dominate the area on the Western facet, contribute to this significance. This paper highlights the significance of English Arabic translation, primarily the interpretation of the 2 phrase English idioms into Arabic; as English language is stuffed with idioms native audio system of English use a whole lot of idioms and expressions in on a regular basis conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV exhibits on the Web as a result of idioms add colour to the language, however on the similar time, idioms are obscure as a result of their which means just isn’t what it seems to be at first sight. This imposes a serious problem to translators from English into Arabic.
For instance within the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of many headlines reads “Police patrols at church buildings stepped up in Pope Row”
The Idiom ‘step up is used on this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom’ step up ‘as follows “rise to the next or extra essential place, be promoted”
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom ‘step up’ as J2J/- J6’9A- J2/’/- J*6’9A- JF/A9- J*B/E
Within the context of the earlier article, the idiom ‘step up’ will be translated as – J2/’/ , it’s the translation of the which means of the idiom.
A Second instance in The Sunday Occasions dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom ‘again down’ is used within the following articles:
Iran’s psychopath in chief, by Israel
“Britain, France, Germany and America hope to cross a decision on the United Nations Safety Council this week mandating Iran to droop its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to again down, the safety council might impose focused sanctions.”
Additionally within the Mail guardian on-line dated 07 November 2005 we are going to discover the headline
‘Blair to again down on anti-terror legal guidelines’
British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he must again down on proposed anti-terror legal guidelines that will allow police to carry folks for as much as 90 days with out charging them.
Dwelling Secretary Charles Clarke, asserting what quantities to a climbdown, mentioned, nonetheless, that the brand new time restrict wouldn’t be as brief because the 28 days sought by critics of the brand new Terrorism Invoice, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.
“We don’t wish to compromise on the 90 days in any respect. Will probably be a compromise with this nation’s safety,” mentioned Blair at his month-to-month Downing Road press convention, the place he held out hope that he might but minimise the influence.
American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom’ ‘again down as ‘Reverse one’s upward course, descend. For instance, When she noticed the wasps’ nest on the roof, she unexpectedly backed down the ladder. This literal utilization normally refers to one thing one has climbed, equivalent to a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom ‘again down’ as –J*F’2D 9F E7D(
Additionally 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9 is a correct translation
Within the earlier articles, it may be translated as 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9, and it’s the translation of the which means of the idiom.
Idioms are one of many elements that makes translation stay a human exercise; though makes an attempt have been made to automate and computerize the interpretation of pure language texts, or to make use of computer systems as an support to translation, however translation stays primarily a human exercise that wants ability, intelligence, human feeling that retains the life and spirit of the unique language to the translated textual content, idioms pose a problem to any translation program. Since a whole lot of idioms can’t be translated actually.
The precise understanding of Idioms is the important thing to have translation from English into Arabic. English is stuffed with idioms; native audio system of English use a whole lot of idioms and expressions of their speech and writing, in different phrases, native audio system of English use idioms on a regular basis. Idioms are the grease that makes language stream, however on the similar time idioms are obscure as a result of an idiom is “An expression whose meanings can’t be inferred from the meanings of the phrases that make it up.” Webster’s On-line Dictionary, however some are simpler to guess after they have some affiliation with the unique which means of the person phrases. So the translator ought to pay attention to the idioms.
The idiom ‘chilly toes’ which the Cambridge Superior Learners Dictionary defines as:”to abruptly turn into too frightened to do one thing you had deliberate to do, particularly one thing essential equivalent to getting married” , whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom ‘chilly toes’ as
“Fearfulness or timidity stopping the completion of a plan of action”.
It’s utilized in an article within the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:
‘Iraq hostages ‘have been saved by rift amongst kidnappers’
o Guards acquired chilly toes after American was shot
o Returning Kember ‘didn’t say due to rescuers’
Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor
Saturday March 25, 2006
The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift amongst their Iraqi kidnappers, a western safety supply near the rescue operation mentioned yesterday.
This idiom used within the earlier article will be translated as AB/’F ‘D-E’3 DA9D 4& E’- FB5’F ‘D4,’9G #H ‘D+B) DA9D 4& E’, the interpretation is the paraphrase of the idiom in accordance with definitions given above. So the precise understanding of idioms is the important thing to translate nicely.
An idiom is discovered and used as a single unit of language; and ought to be translated in the identical approach. To translate idioms the translator , to begin with wants to acknowledge idioms , perceive them, know the tradition from which the idiom comes, the origin, the ambiance by which it’s used , then the translator ought to do his/her greatest, at first to search out an equal or a corresponding idiom within the goal language that retains the flavour of the unique, if there may be not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and interprets the which means of the idiom in phrases that hold the colour and taste of the idiom within the supply language
Each language is idiomatic; every language has a sure algorithm that govern the best way phrases are put collectively to precise information, concepts and emotions. The foundations and their exceptions are distinctive to the language, regardless of doable similarities with different languages. On this sense, a language is at all times idiomatic. Inside this common consideration, we normally consider ‘idioms’ as distinctive phrases: we use them to precise one thing that different, extra common sentences cannot specific simply as nicely. You will need to study idioms to have the ability to talk nicely. They’re additionally fascinating to check due to the perception they provide us into the language and the individuals who use them. These expressions originate within the historical past, literature, faith, and traditions typical of a sure neighborhood. Because of this, idioms reveal a lot of the mind-set of a neighborhood.
Since idiomatic expressions are so incessantly encountered in each spoken and written discourse, they require particular consideration in translation
the Oxford Superior Learner’s Dictionary defines ‘idiom’ as : a gaggle of phrases whose which means is totally different from the meanings of the person phrases:. This implies even when one is aware of the which means of every phrase; one could not perceive the idiom itself. So we can not translate the idioms accurately except we perceive their which means. If we keep in mind the idiom ‘ New blood and translate it into Arabic (/E ,/J/) phrase by phrase, (/E ,/J/) is typically utilized in Arabic to imply younger folks. On one hand, it may be seen as an equal, alternatively typically it’s arduous to guess that the expression truly means ‘ folks with a whole lot of vitality or recent concepts who’re introduced into a company as a way to enhance it’ as outlined in Cambridge superior Learner’s dictionary, as in F-*’, ‘DJ /E ,/J/– it may possibly imply the necessity for brand new blood in a hospital for example, however typically it may be misunderstood.
Primarily based on the earlier definition in Cambridge superior Learner’s Dictionary, the suitable translation for this idiom is #4.’5 EDJ&) (‘D7’B) H ‘D-JHJ) H ‘D#AC’1- ‘AC’1 H 7’B’* ,/J/) .The interpretation here’s a paraphrase.
As a matter of truth, the literal translation of an idiom is usually absurd or comical. The idiom ‘Again burner ‘ actually interprets into Arabic as ”D-‘1B ‘D.DAJ’
The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If a problem is on the again burner, it’s being given low precedence is ‘ then the precise translation is -‘D EF 9/E ‘D’G*E’E-BDJD ‘D’GEJ)
typically The picture created by the literal which means of an idiom is comedian however typically it may possibly assist to do not forget that idiom.
Right here is an instance of English idioms that may be simply understood from the pictures they evoke. The English idiom double confronted interprets actually in Arabic as 0H H,GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the picture created by this idiom helps us to recollect and perceive it. So we will translate it as EF’AB ‘hypocrite’ in Arabic- or -E.’/9 deceiver (in Arabic), which might be an satisfactory translation. The picture created by the idiom double confronted could make us consider an individual with two faces , which implies hypocrite .Regardless that utilizing the pictures of the literal translation is an efficient and enjoyable strategy to study English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in lots of circumstances
The actual which means of the English idiom needs to be discovered in context to be accurately understood. It’s essential to check idioms inside sentences. A correct instance makes the which means and the use clear. For instance the idiom sitting duck which implies ‘a simple goal’, once we study this idiom in a sentence as in “His arguments have been so easy, she was in a position to knock them down like sitting geese.” Will probably be straightforward to grasp that the idiom means ‘a simple goal’ and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it actually in Arabic it could be (7) ,’D3) which doesn’t make sense in Arabic, however the satisfactory translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G/A 3GD
Translation of concepts and which means from one language to a different leaves a lot freedom to the translator , however translation of idioms doesn’t want solely translation of concepts and which means , the translator ought to hold the impact idioms give to the language as doable because the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word” translation is insufficient and complicated, To translate idioms nicely, the translator should acknowledge idioms to be idioms, the translator should perceive the targets and intents of the creator of the unique work; and the context by which idioms are used, then s/he ought to perceive the which means of the idioms, s/he ought to look it up in dictionaries, search on the net , ask native audio system, and perceive the therapeutic massage of the idiom and in what context it’s used . It’s good to discover a comparable idiom in Arabic that carries the identical which means of the English idiom, if the translator can not discover so it’s good to parse the idiom aside into its which means and translate the which means.
Katharine Barnwell says: The duty of the translator is to translate the which means of the message, moderately than the phrases.
Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.
So as to have translation, there should be translator, who ought to be fluent within the two languages he seeks to translate between. He should perceive the language which he’s translating from, in addition to the language by which he’s translating the work into. Furthermore, translator should particularly be communicator within the goal language. translator should have the information, ability and expertise on this enterprise; The truth is the translator has a really severe duty to not change the which means in any approach. He should be cautious to not add something to the which means, or to go away any a part of the which means. Really the duty of translator is harder than the author himself, the author is free to precise his concepts and views in the best way he sees appropriate and within the vocabulary he likes, however the translator confines himself to the phrases the author used and he should be cautious to not add something to the which means, or to go away any a part of the which means.
From what has been talked about above, it’s apparent that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship amongst nations, it’s essential for progress and prosperity .By the technique of translation new civilizations advanced, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific, books have been translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the premise for the western civilization.
English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, as a result of each languages are nice world languages, furthermore present occasions, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this significance ; English is the language of massive powers and Arabic is the language of the area the place conflicts happen for a lot of causes talked about beforehand
Idioms pose a problem to translators from English into Arabic. English is stuffed with idioms which can’t be understood from the person phrases .A translator of English idioms into Arabic wants good information of the 2 languages and information of each cultures .Idioms mirror tradition traditions ,cultural identities and historical past of any nation. They provide us perception into historical past , tradition , traditions, and values, morals. So idioms mirror our widespread humanity by means of language.
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